# Difference between revisions of "Ramsey"

Ramsey cardinals were introduced by Erdős and Hajnal in [1]. A cardinal $\kappa$ is Ramsey if it has the partition property $\kappa\rightarrow (\kappa)^{\lt\omega}_2$.

For infinite cardinals $\kappa$ and $\lambda$, the partition property $\kappa\to(\lambda)^n_\gamma$ asserts that for every function $F:[\kappa]^n\to\gamma$ there is $H\subseteq\kappa$ with $|H|=\lambda$ such that $F\upharpoonright[H]^n$ is constant. Here $[X]^n$ is the set of all $n$-elements subsets of $X$. The more general partition property $\kappa\to(\lambda)^{\lt\omega}_\gamma$ asserts that for every function $F:[\kappa]^{\lt\omega}\to\gamma$ there is $H\subseteq\kappa$ with $|H|=\lambda$ such that $F\upharpoonright[H]^n$ is constant for every $n$, although the value of $F$ on $[H]^n$ may be different for different $n$. Indeed, if $\kappa$ is Ramsey, then $\kappa\rightarrow (\kappa)^{\lt\omega}_\lambda$ for every $\lambda<\kappa$. Ramsey cardinals were named in honor of Frank Ramsey, whose Ramsey theorem for partition properties of $\omega$ motivated the generalizations of these to uncountable cardinals. A Ramsey cardinal $\kappa$ is exactly the $\kappa$-Erdős cardinal.

Ramsey cardinals have a number of other characterizations. They may be characterized model theoretically through the existence of $\kappa$-sized sets of indiscernibles for models meeting the criteria discussed below, as well as through the existence of $\kappa$-sized models of set theory without power set with iterable ultrapowers.

Indiscernibles: Suppose $\mathcal A=(A,\ldots)$ is a model of a language $\mathcal L$ of size less than $\kappa$ whose universe $A$ contains $\kappa$ as a subset.

A cardinal $\kappa$ is Ramsey if and only if every such model $\mathcal A$ has a $\kappa$-sized set of indiscernibles $H\subseteq\kappa$, that is, for every formula $\varphi(\overline x)$ of $\mathcal L$ and every pair of tuples $\overline \alpha$ and $\overline \beta$ of elements of $H$, we have $\mathcal A\models\varphi (\overline \alpha)\leftrightarrow \varphi(\overline \beta)$. [2]

Good sets of indiscernibles: Suppose $A\subseteq\kappa$ and $L_\kappa[A]$ denotes the $\kappa^{\text{th}}$-level of the universe constructible using a predicate for $A$. A set $I\subseteq\kappa$ is a good set of indiscernibles for the model $\langle L_\kappa[A],A\rangle$ if for all $\gamma\in I$,

• $\langle L_\gamma[A\cap \gamma],A\cap \gamma\rangle\prec \langle L_\kappa[A], A\rangle$,
• $I\setminus\gamma$ is a set of indiscernibles for the model $\langle L_\kappa[A], A,\xi\rangle_{\xi\in\gamma}$.

A cardinal $\kappa$ is Ramsey if and only if for every $A\subseteq\kappa$, there is a $\kappa$-sized good set of indiscernibles for the model $\langle L_\kappa[A], A\rangle$. [3]

$M$-ultrafilters: Suppose a transitive $M\models {\rm ZFC}^-$, the theory ${\rm ZFC}$ without the power set axiom (and using collection and separation rather than merely replacement) and $\kappa$ is a cardinal in $M$. We call $U\subseteq P(\kappa)^M$ an $M$-ultrafilter if the model $\langle M,U\rangle\models$“$U$ is a normal ultrafilter on $\kappa$”. In the case when the $M$-ultrafilter is not an element of $M$, the model $\langle M,U\rangle$ of $M$ together with a predicate for $U$ often fails to satisfy much of ${\rm ZFC}$. An $M$-ultrafilter $U$ is said to be weakly amenable (to $M$) if for every $A\in M$ of size $\kappa$ in $M$, the intersection $A\cap U$ is an element of $M$. An $M$-ultrafilter $U$ is countably complete if every countable sequence (possibly external to $M$) of elements of $U$ has a non-empty intersection (even if the intersection is not itself an element of $M$). A weak $\kappa$-model is a transitive set $M\models {\rm ZFC}^-$ of size $\kappa$ and containing $\kappa$ as an element. A modified ultrapower construction using only functions on $\kappa$ that are elements of $M$ can be carried out with an $M$-ultrafilter. If the $M$-ultrafilter happens to be countably complete, then the standard argument shows that the ultrapower is well-founded. If the $M$-ultrafilter is moreover weakly amenable, then a weakly amenable ultrafilter on the image of $\kappa$ in the well-founded ultrapower can be constructed from images of the pieces of $U$ that are in $M$. The ultrapower construction may be iterated in this manner, taking direct limits at limit stages, and in this case the countable completeness of the $M$-ultrafilter ensures that every stage of the iteration produces a well-founded model. [4] (Ch. 19)

A cardinal $\kappa$ is Ramsey if and only if every $A\subseteq\kappa$ is contained in a weak $\kappa$-model $M$ for which there exists a weakly amenable countably complete $M$-ultrafilter on $\kappa$. [3]

## Ramsey cardinals and the constructible universe

Ramsey cardinals imply that $0^\sharp$ exists and hence there cannot be Ramsey cardinals in $L$. [4]

## Relations with other large cardinals

• Measurable cardinals are Ramsey and stationary limits of Ramsey cardinals. [1]
• Ramsey cardinals are unfoldable (using the $M$-ultrafilters characterization) and stationary limits of unfoldable cardinals (as they are stationary limits of $\omega_1$-iterable cardinals).
• Ramsey cardinals are stationary limits of completely ineffable cardinals, they are weakly ineffable but but the least Ramsey cardinal is not ineffable. [5]

## Ramsey cardinals and forcing

• Ramsey cardinals are preserved by small forcing. [4]
• Ramsey cardinals $\kappa$ are preserved by the canonical forcing of the ${\rm GCH}$, by fast function forcing, and by the forcing to add a slim $\kappa$-Kurepa tree. [6]
• If $\kappa$ is Ramsey, there is a forcing extension in which $\kappa$ remains Ramsey and $2^\kappa\gt\kappa$. Indeed, if the ${\rm GCH}$ holds and $F$ is a class function on the regular cardinals having a closure point at $\kappa$ and satisfying $F(\alpha)\leq F(\beta)$ for $\alpha<\beta$ and $\text{cf}(F(\alpha))>\alpha$, then there is a cofinality preserving forcing extension in which $\kappa$ remains Ramsey and $2^\delta=F(\delta)$ for every regular cardinal $\delta$. [7]
• If the existence of Ramsey cardinals is consistent with ZFC, then there is a model of ZFC in which $\kappa$ is not Ramsey, but becomes Ramsey in a forcing extension. [6]

## Ramsey-like cardinals

There are many Ramsey-like cardinals, most of which can be found in [5].

### Super Ramsey cardinal

Super Ramsey cardinals were introduced by Gitman in [5]. They strengthen one definition of strong Ramseyness.

A weak $\kappa$-model $M$ is a $\kappa$-model if additionally $M^{\lt\kappa}\subseteq M$.

A cardinal $\kappa$ is super Ramsey if and only if for every $A\subseteq\kappa$, there is some $\kappa$-model $M$ such that:

• $M\supseteq A$
• $M\prec H_{\kappa^+}$
• There is some $\kappa$-preserving nontrivial elementary embedding $j:M\prec N$

The following are some facts about super Ramsey cardinals:

• Measurable cardinals are super Ramsey limits of super Ramsey cardinals. [5]
• Super Ramsey cardinals are strongly Ramsey limits of strongly Ramsey cardinals. [5]
• Super Ramseyness is downward absolute to $K$. [8]
• The required $M$ for a super Ramsey embedding is stationarily correct. [5]
• The consistency strength of a super Ramsey cardinal is stronger than that of a strongly Ramsey cardinal and weaker than that of a measurable cardinal. [5]

### Strongly Ramsey cardinal

Strongly Ramsey cardinals were introduced by Gitman in [5]. They strengthen the $M$-ultrafilters characterization of Ramsey cardinals from weak $\kappa$-models to $\kappa$-models.

A cardinal $\kappa$ is strongly Ramsey if every $A\subseteq\kappa$ is contained in a $\kappa$-model $M$ for which there exists a weakly amenable $M$-ultrafilter on $\kappa$. An $M$-ultrafilter for a $\kappa$-model $M$ is automatically countably complete since $\langle M,U\rangle$ satisfies that it is $\kappa$-complete and it must be correct about this since $M$ is closed under sequences of length less than $\kappa$.

• Measurable cardinals are strongly Ramsey limits of strongly Ramsey cardinals. [5]
• Strongly Ramsey cardinals are Ramsey and stationary limits of Ramsey cardinals. [5]
• The least strongly Ramsey cardinal is not ineffable. [5]
• Forcing related properties of strongly Ramsey cardinals are the same as those of Ramsey cardinals described above. [6]
• The consistency strength of strongly Ramsey cardinals is stronger than that of Ramsey cardinals. [5]
• Strong Ramseyness is downward absolute to $K$. [8]

### Virtually Ramsey cardinal

Virtually Ramsey cardinals were introduced by Sharpe and Welch in [9]. They weaken the good indiscernibles characterization of Ramsey cardinals and were motivated by finding an upper bound on the consistency strength of a variant of Chang's Conjecture studied in [9]. For $A\subseteq\kappa$, define that $\mathscr I=\{\alpha<\kappa\mid$ there is an unbounded good set of indiscernibles $I_\alpha\subseteq\alpha$ for $\langle L_\kappa[A],A\rangle\}$. A cardinal $\kappa$ is virtually Ramsey if for every $A\subseteq\kappa$, the set $\mathscr I$ contains a club of $\kappa$.

Virtually Ramsey cardinals are Mahlo and a virtually Ramsey cardinal that is weakly compact is already Ramsey. It is consistent from a Ramsey cardinal that there is a virtually Ramsey cardinal that is not Ramsey. It is open whether virtually Ramsey cardinals are weaker than Ramsey cardinals. [8]

### Almost Ramsey cardinal

An uncountable cardinal $\kappa$ is almost Ramsey if and only if $\kappa\rightarrow(\alpha)^{<\omega}$ for every $\alpha<\kappa$. Equivalently:

• $\kappa\rightarrow(\alpha)^{<\omega}_\lambda$ for every $\alpha,\lambda<\kappa$
• For every structure $\mathcal{M}$ with language of size $<\kappa$, there is are sets of indiscernibles $I\subseteq\kappa$ for $\mathcal{M}$ of any size $<\kappa$.
• For every $\alpha<\kappa$, $\eta_\alpha$ exists and $\eta_\alpha<\kappa$.
• $\kappa=\text{sup}\{\eta_\alpha:\alpha<\kappa\}$

Where $\eta_\alpha$ is the $\alpha$-Erdős cardinal.

Every almost Ramsey cardinal is a $\beth$-fixed point, but the least almost Ramsey cardinal, if it exists, has cofinality $\omega$. In fact, the least almost Ramsey cardinal is not weakly inaccessible, worldly, or correct. However, if the least almost Ramsey cardinal exists, it is larger than the least $\omega_1$-Erdős cardinal. Any regular almost Ramsey cardinal is worldly, and any worldly almost Ramsey cardinal $\kappa$ has $\kappa$ almost Ramsey cardinals below it.

The existence of a worldly almost Ramsey cardinal is stronger than the existence of a proper class of almost Ramsey cardinals. Therefore, the existence of a Ramsey cardinal is stronger than the existence of a proper class of almost Ramsey cardinals. The existence of an almost Ramsey cardinal is stronger than the existence of an $\omega_1$-Erdős cardinal.

The existence of an almost Ramsey cardinal is equivalent to the existence of $\eta^n(\omega)$ for every $n<\omega$. On one hand, if a almost Ramsey cardinal $\kappa$ exists, then $\omega<\kappa$. Then, $\eta_\omega$ is less than $\kappa$. Then, $\eta_{\eta_\omega}$ exists and is less than $\kappa$, and so on. On the other hand, if $\eta^n(\omega)$ exists for every $n<\omega$, then $\text{sup}\{\eta^n(\omega):n<\omega\}$ is almost Ramsey, and in fact the least almost Ramsey cardinal. Note that such a set exists by replacement and has a supremum by union.

The Ramsey cardinals are precisely the Erdős almost Ramsey cardinals.

### $\alpha$-iterable cardinal

The $\alpha$-iterable cardinals for $1\leq\alpha\leq\omega_1$ were introduced by Gitman in [8]. They form a hierarchy of large cardinal notions strengthening weakly compact cardinals, while weakening the $M$-ultrafilters characterization of Ramsey cardinals. Recall that if $\kappa$ is Ramsey, then every $A\subseteq\kappa$ is contained in a weak $\kappa$-model $M$ for which there exists an $M$-ultrafilter, the ultrapower construction with which may be iterated through all the ordinals. Suppose $M$ is a weak $\kappa$-model and $U$ is an $M$-ultrafilter on $\kappa$. Define that:

• $U$ is $0$-good if the ultrapower is well-founded,
• $U$ is 1-good if it is 0-good and weakly amenable,
• for an ordinal $\alpha>1$, $U$ is $\alpha$-good, if it produces at least $\alpha$-many well-founded iterated ultrapowers.

Using a theorem of Gaifman [10], if an $M$-ultrafilter is $\omega_1$-good, then it is already $\alpha$-good for every ordinal $\alpha$.

For $1\leq\alpha\leq\omega_1$, a cardinal $\kappa$ is $\alpha$-iterable if every $A\subseteq\kappa$ is contained in a weak $\kappa$-model $M$ for which there exists an $\alpha$-good $M$-ultrafilter on $\kappa$. The $\alpha$-iterable cardinals form a hierarchy of strength above weakly compact cardinals and below Ramsey cardinals.

The $1$-iterable cardinals are sometimes called the weakly Ramsey cardinals.

• $1$-iterable cardinals are weakly ineffable and stationary limits of completely ineffable cardinals. The least $1$-iterable cardinal is not ineffable. [5]
• An $\alpha$-iterable cardinal is $\beta$-iterable and a stationary limit of $\beta$-iterable cardinals for every $\beta<\alpha$. [8]
• A Ramsey cardinal is $\omega_1$-iterable and a stationary limit of $\omega_1$-iterable cardinals. This is already true of an $\omega_1$- Erdős cardinal. [9]
• It is consistent from an $\omega$- Erdős cardinal that for every $n\in\omega$, there is a proper class of $n$-iterable cardinals.
• A $2$-iterable cardinal is a limit of remarkable cardinals. [8]
• A remarkable cardinal implies the consistency of a $1$-iterable cardinal. [8]
• $\omega_1$-iterable cardinals imply that $0^\sharp$ exists and hence there cannot be $\omega_1$-iterable cardinals in $L$. For $L$-countable $\alpha$, the $\alpha$-iterable cardinals are downward absolute to $L$. In fact, if $0^\sharp$ exists, then every Silver indiscernible is $\alpha$-iterable in $L$ for every $L$-countable $\alpha$. [8]
• $\alpha$-iterable cardinals $\kappa$ are preserved by small forcing, by the canonical forcing of the ${\rm GCH}$, by fast function forcing, and by the forcing to add a slim $\kappa$-Kurepa tree. If $\kappa$ is $\alpha$-iterable, there is a forcing extension in which $\kappa$ remains $\alpha$-iterable and $2^\kappa\gt\kappa$. [11]

## References

1. Erdős, Paul and Hajnal, Andras. Some remarks concerning our paper On the structure of set-mappings''. Non-existence of a two-valued $\sigma$-measure for the first uncountable inaccessible cardinal. Acta Math Acad Sci Hungar 13:223--226, 1962. MR   bibtex
2. Jech, Thomas J. Set Theory. Third, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003. (The third millennium edition, revised and expanded) www   bibtex
3. Dodd, Anthony and Jensen, Ronald. The core model. Ann Math Logic 20(1):43--75, 1981. www   DOI   MR   bibtex
4. Kanamori, Akihiro. The higher infinite. Second, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2009. (Large cardinals in set theory from their beginnings, Paperback reprint of the 2003 edition) www   bibtex
5. Gitman, Victoria. Ramsey-like cardinals. The Journal of Symbolic Logic 76(2):519-540, 2011. www   arχiv   MR   bibtex
6. Gitman, Victoria and Johnstone, Thomas A. Indestructibility for Ramsey and Ramsey-like cardinals. (In preparation) www   bibtex
7. Cody, Brent and Gitman, Victoria. Easton's theorem for Ramsey and strongly Ramsey cardinals. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 166(9):934 - 952, 2015. www   DOI   bibtex
8. Gitman, Victoria and Welch, Philip. Ramsey-like cardinals II. J Symbolic Logic 76(2):541--560, 2011. www   arχiv   MR   bibtex
9. Sharpe, Ian and Welch, Philip. Greatly Erdős cardinals with some generalizations to the Chang and Ramsey properties. Ann Pure Appl Logic 162(11):863--902, 2011. www   DOI   MR   bibtex
10. Gaifman, Haim. Elementary embeddings of models of set-theory and certain subtheories. Axiomatic set theory (Proc. Sympos. Pure Math., Vol. XIII, Part II, Univ. California, Los Angeles, Calif., 1967), pp. 33--101, Providence R.I., 1974. MR   bibtex
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