# Difference between revisions of "Ramsey"

Ramsey cardinals were introduced by Erdős and Hajnal in . A cardinal $\kappa$ is Ramsey if it has the partition property $\kappa\rightarrow (\kappa)^{\lt\omega}_2$ (see the weakly compact cardinals entry for notation meaning). They were named in honor of Frank Ramsey, whose Ramsey theorem for partition relations on $\omega$ motivated the generalizations to the larger infinite context. Ramsey cardinals is a robust large cardinal notion that is characterized model theoretically through the existence of $\kappa$-sized sets of indiscernibles for certain structures, as well as through the existence of iterable ultrapowers for certain models of weak set theory.

Models with indiscernibles: Suppose $\mathcal A=(A,\ldots)$ is a model of a language $\mathcal L$ of size less than $\kappa$ whose universe $A$ contains $\kappa$ as a subset. Then $\kappa$ is Ramsey if and only if every such model $\mathcal A$ has a $\kappa$-sized set of indiscernibles $H\subseteq\kappa$, i.e. for every formula $\varphi(\overline x)$ of $\mathcal L$ and every pair of tuples $\overline \alpha$ and $\overline \beta$ in $H$, we have $\mathcal A\models\varphi (\overline \alpha)\leftrightarrow \varphi(\overline \beta)$.

Good sets of indiscernibles: Suppose $A\subseteq\kappa$, then $L_\kappa[A]$ denotes the $\kappa^{\text{th}}$-level of the universe constructible using a predicate for $A$. A set $I\subseteq\kappa$ is a good set of indiscernibles for the model $\langle L_\kappa[A],A\rangle$ if for all $\gamma\in I$,

• $\langle L_\gamma[A\cap \gamma],A\cap \gamma\rangle\prec \langle L_\kappa[A], A\rangle$
• $I\setminus\gamma$ is a set of indiscernibles for the model $\langle L_\kappa[A], A,\xi\rangle_{\xi\in\gamma}$.

A cardinal $\kappa$ is Ramsey if and only if for every $A\subseteq\kappa$, there is a good set of indiscernibles for the model $\langle L_\kappa[A], A\rangle$ of size $\kappa$.

$M$-ultrafilters: Suppose $M\models {\rm ZFC}^-$, the theory ${\rm ZFC}$ without the power set axiom (and using collection and separation rather than merely replacement) and $\kappa$ is a cardinal in $M$. Then $U\subseteq P(\kappa)^M$ is an $M$-ultrafilter if the model $\langle M,U\rangle\models U$ is a normal ultrafilter on $\kappa$. An $M$-ultrafilter $U$ is said to be weakly amenable (to $M$) if for every $A\in M$ of size $\kappa$ in $M$, the intersection $A\cap U$ is an element of $M$. An $M$-ultrafilter $U$ is countably complete if every countable sequence (possibly external to $M$) of elements of $U$ has a non-empty intersection (even if the intersection is not itself an element of $M$). A weak $\kappa$-model is a transitive set $M\models {\rm ZFC}^-$ of size $\kappa$ and containing $\kappa$ as an element. A modified ultrapower construction using only functions on $\kappa$ that are elements of $M$ can be carried out with an $M$-ultrafilter. If the $M$-ultrafilter happens to be countably complete, then the standard argument shows that the ultrapower is well-founded. If the $M$-ultrafilter is moreover weakly amenable, then a weakly amenable ultrafilter on the image of $\kappa$ in the well-founded ultrapower can be constructed from images of the pieces of $U$ that are in $M$. The ultrapower construction may be iterated in this manner, taking direct limits at limit stages, and in this case the countable completeness of the $M$-ultrafilter ensures that every stage of the iteration produces a well-founded model.

A cardinal $\kappa$ is Ramsey if and only if every $A\subseteq\kappa$ is contained in a weak $\kappa$-model $M$ for which there exists a weakly amenable countably complete $M$-ultrafilter on $\kappa$.