Difference between revisions of "Remarkable"
BartekChom (Talk | contribs) (→Relations with other large cardinals: +2) |
BartekChom (Talk | contribs) (start) |
||
Line 1: | Line 1: | ||
{{DISPLAYTITLE: Remarkable cardinal}} | {{DISPLAYTITLE: Remarkable cardinal}} | ||
− | Remarkable cardinals were introduced by Schinder in <cite>Schindler2000:RemarkableCardinal</cite> to provide precise consistency strength of the statement that $L(\mathbb R)$ cannot be modified by proper forcing. A cardinal $\kappa$ is remarkable if for each regular $\lambda>\kappa$, there exists a countable transitive $M$ and an elementary embedding $e:M\rightarrow H_\lambda$ with $\kappa\in \text{ran}(e)$ and also a countable transitive $N$ and an elementary embedding $\theta:M\to N$ such that: | + | Remarkable cardinals were introduced by Schinder in <cite>Schindler2000:RemarkableCardinal</cite> to provide precise consistency strength of the statement that $L(\mathbb R)$ cannot be modified by proper forcing. |
+ | |||
+ | ==Definitions== | ||
+ | A cardinal $\kappa$ is remarkable if for each regular $\lambda>\kappa$, there exists a countable transitive $M$ and an elementary embedding $e:M\rightarrow H_\lambda$ with $\kappa\in \text{ran}(e)$ and also a countable transitive $N$ and an elementary embedding $\theta:M\to N$ such that: | ||
* the critical point of $\theta$ is $e^{-1}(\kappa)$, | * the critical point of $\theta$ is $e^{-1}(\kappa)$, | ||
* $\text{Ord}^M$ is a regular cardinal in $N$, | * $\text{Ord}^M$ is a regular cardinal in $N$, | ||
Line 6: | Line 9: | ||
* $\theta(e^{-1}(\kappa))>\text{Ord}^M$. | * $\theta(e^{-1}(\kappa))>\text{Ord}^M$. | ||
− | Remarkable cardinals could be called virtually [[supercompact]], because the following alternative definition is an exact analogue of the definition of supercompact cardinals by Magidor [Mag71]: A cardinal $κ$ is remarkable iff for every $η > κ$, there is $α < κ$ such that in a set-forcing extension there is an elementary embedding $j : V_α → V_η$ with $j(\mathrm{crit}(j)) = κ$.<cite>GitmanSchindler:VirtualLargeCardinals</cite> | + | Remarkable cardinals could be called virtually [[supercompact]], because the following alternative definition is an exact analogue of the definition of supercompact cardinals by Magidor [Mag71]: |
+ | : A cardinal $κ$ is remarkable iff for every $η > κ$, there is $α < κ$ such that in a set-forcing extension there is an elementary embedding $j : V_α → V_η$ with $j(\mathrm{crit}(j)) = κ$.<cite>GitmanSchindler:VirtualLargeCardinals</cite> | ||
+ | |||
+ | Equivalently (theorem 2.4<cite>BagariaGitmanSchindler2017:VopenkaPrinciple</cite>) | ||
+ | * For every $η > κ$ and every $a ∈ V_η$, there is $α < κ$ such that in $V^{Coll(ω,<κ)}$ there is an elementary embedding $j : V_α → V_η$ with $j(crit(j)) = κ$ and $a ∈ range(j)$. | ||
+ | * For every $η > κ$ in $C^{(1)}$ and every $a ∈ V_η$, there is $α < κ$ also in $C^{(1)}$ such that in $V^{Coll(ω,<κ)}$ there is an elementary embedding $j : V_α → V_η$ with $j(crit(j)) = κ$ and $a ∈ range(j)$. | ||
+ | * There is a proper class of $η > κ$ such that for every $η$ in the class, there is $α < κ$ such that in $V^{Coll(ω,<κ)}$ there is an elementary embedding $j : V_α → V_η$ with $j(crit(j)) = κ$ | ||
==Remarkable cardinals and the constructible universe== | ==Remarkable cardinals and the constructible universe== | ||
Line 21: | Line 30: | ||
* If $κ$ is virtually [[measurable]], then either $κ$ is remarkable in $L$ or $L_κ \models \text{“there is a proper class of virtually measurables”}$.<cite>NielsenWelch2018:GamesRamseylike</cite> | * If $κ$ is virtually [[measurable]], then either $κ$ is remarkable in $L$ or $L_κ \models \text{“there is a proper class of virtually measurables”}$.<cite>NielsenWelch2018:GamesRamseylike</cite> | ||
* Remarkable cardinals are strategic $ω$-[[Ramsey]] limits of $ω$-Ramsey cardinals.<cite>NielsenWelch2018:GamesRamseylike</cite> | * Remarkable cardinals are strategic $ω$-[[Ramsey]] limits of $ω$-Ramsey cardinals.<cite>NielsenWelch2018:GamesRamseylike</cite> | ||
+ | * Remarkable cardinals are $Σ_2$-reflecting.<cite>Wilson2018:WeaklyRemarkableCardinals</cite> | ||
+ | |||
+ | ==Weakly remarkable cardinals== | ||
+ | A cardinal $κ$ is weakly remarkable iff for every $η > κ$, there is $α$ such that in a set-forcing extension there is an elementary embedding $j : V_α → V_η$ with $j(\mathrm{crit}(j)) = κ$. (the condition $α < κ$ is dropped) | ||
+ | |||
+ | A cardinal is remarkable iff it is weakly remarkable and $Σ_2$-reflecting. | ||
+ | |||
+ | The existence of non-remarkable weakly remarkable cardinals is equiconsistent to the existence of [[Erdos|$ω$-Erdős]] cardinal (equivalent assuming $V=L$): | ||
+ | * Every $ω$-Erdős cardinal is a limit of non-remarkable weakly remarkable cardinals. | ||
+ | * If $κ$ is a non-remarkable weakly remarkable cardinal, then some ordinal greater than $κ$ is an $ω$-Erdős cardinal in $L$. | ||
+ | |||
+ | (this section from <cite>Wilson2018:WeaklyRemarkableCardinals</cite>) | ||
{{References}} | {{References}} |
Revision as of 11:59, 11 September 2019
Remarkable cardinals were introduced by Schinder in [1] to provide precise consistency strength of the statement that $L(\mathbb R)$ cannot be modified by proper forcing.
Contents
Definitions
A cardinal $\kappa$ is remarkable if for each regular $\lambda>\kappa$, there exists a countable transitive $M$ and an elementary embedding $e:M\rightarrow H_\lambda$ with $\kappa\in \text{ran}(e)$ and also a countable transitive $N$ and an elementary embedding $\theta:M\to N$ such that:
- the critical point of $\theta$ is $e^{-1}(\kappa)$,
- $\text{Ord}^M$ is a regular cardinal in $N$,
- $M=H^N_{\text{Ord}^M}$,
- $\theta(e^{-1}(\kappa))>\text{Ord}^M$.
Remarkable cardinals could be called virtually supercompact, because the following alternative definition is an exact analogue of the definition of supercompact cardinals by Magidor [Mag71]:
- A cardinal $κ$ is remarkable iff for every $η > κ$, there is $α < κ$ such that in a set-forcing extension there is an elementary embedding $j : V_α → V_η$ with $j(\mathrm{crit}(j)) = κ$.[2]
Equivalently (theorem 2.4[3])
- For every $η > κ$ and every $a ∈ V_η$, there is $α < κ$ such that in $V^{Coll(ω,<κ)}$ there is an elementary embedding $j : V_α → V_η$ with $j(crit(j)) = κ$ and $a ∈ range(j)$.
- For every $η > κ$ in $C^{(1)}$ and every $a ∈ V_η$, there is $α < κ$ also in $C^{(1)}$ such that in $V^{Coll(ω,<κ)}$ there is an elementary embedding $j : V_α → V_η$ with $j(crit(j)) = κ$ and $a ∈ range(j)$.
- There is a proper class of $η > κ$ such that for every $η$ in the class, there is $α < κ$ such that in $V^{Coll(ω,<κ)}$ there is an elementary embedding $j : V_α → V_η$ with $j(crit(j)) = κ$
Remarkable cardinals and the constructible universe
- Remarkable cardinals are downward absolute to $L$. [1]
- If $0^\sharp$ exists, then every Silver indiscernible is remarkable in $L$. [1]
Relations with other large cardinals
- Strong cardinals are remarkable. [1]
- A $2$-iterable cardinal implies the consistency of a remarkable cardinal. [4]
- Remarkable cardinals imply the consistency of $1$-iterable cardinals. [4]
- Remarkable cardinals are totally indescribable. [1]
- Remarkable cardinals are totally ineffable. [1]
- Virtually extendible cardinals are remarkable limits of remarkable cardinals.[2]
- If $κ$ is virtually measurable, then either $κ$ is remarkable in $L$ or $L_κ \models \text{“there is a proper class of virtually measurables”}$.[5]
- Remarkable cardinals are strategic $ω$-Ramsey limits of $ω$-Ramsey cardinals.[5]
- Remarkable cardinals are $Σ_2$-reflecting.[6]
Weakly remarkable cardinals
A cardinal $κ$ is weakly remarkable iff for every $η > κ$, there is $α$ such that in a set-forcing extension there is an elementary embedding $j : V_α → V_η$ with $j(\mathrm{crit}(j)) = κ$. (the condition $α < κ$ is dropped)
A cardinal is remarkable iff it is weakly remarkable and $Σ_2$-reflecting.
The existence of non-remarkable weakly remarkable cardinals is equiconsistent to the existence of $ω$-Erdős cardinal (equivalent assuming $V=L$):
- Every $ω$-Erdős cardinal is a limit of non-remarkable weakly remarkable cardinals.
- If $κ$ is a non-remarkable weakly remarkable cardinal, then some ordinal greater than $κ$ is an $ω$-Erdős cardinal in $L$.
(this section from [6])
References
- Schindler, Ralf-Dieter. Proper forcing and remarkable cardinals. Bull Symbolic Logic 6(2):176--184, 2000. www DOI MR bibtex
- Gitman, Victoria and Shindler, Ralf. Virtual large cardinals. www bibtex
- Bagaria, Joan and Gitman, Victoria and Schindler, Ralf. Generic {V}opěnka's {P}rinciple, remarkable cardinals, and the weak {P}roper {F}orcing {A}xiom. Arch Math Logic 56(1-2):1--20, 2017. www DOI MR bibtex
- Gitman, Victoria and Welch, Philip. Ramsey-like cardinals II. J Symbolic Logic 76(2):541--560, 2011. www arχiv MR bibtex
- Nielsen, Dan Saattrup and Welch, Philip. Games and Ramsey-like cardinals. , 2018. arχiv bibtex
- Wilson, Trevor M. Weakly remarkable cardinals, Erdős cardinals, and the generic Vopěnka principle. , 2018. arχiv bibtex